Apartments in Fulton River District: Stylish and Convenient Living

7 Ten Apartments in the Fulton River District

7 ten apartments is located in the historic Fulton River District neighborhood. It offers studio, convertible, one and two-bedroom apartments in a variety of floor plans.

Classic six-room floor plan with stunning light and a large windowed kitchen. Tiger hardwood floors, elegant molding and high ceilings create a stately feel.

Located in the heart of Indiana University

IU is home to some of the most prestigious programs in the world. It’s also a college town with a strong sense of community and a place to find plenty of things to do. The best way to experience all that is from an apartment close to campus.

Whether you’re looking for an urban loft that takes your style to the next level or a contemporary high-rise bursting with all your favorite amenities, there are plenty of options. And if you want to get out and explore, you’ll have an easy commute with buses and trains just a block away.

This rental is located in a residential neighborhood near Crane NSRC, Ivy Tech, Cook, Baxter and north YMCA, shopping, grocery, parks and trails, and local restaurants. It features a private fenced back yard, a walk-out basement with a bedroom (can be used as an office or exercise room), one bathroom, a full kitchen, washer and dryer and driveway parking for three cars.

Conveniently Located in the Fulton River District

As one of Chicago’s most popular neighborhoods, Fulton River District / Pulaski Park is home to many iconic buildings and local favorites like Blommer Chocolate Company (you might find the faint smell of cocoa in your apartment from time to time). The neighborhood is a mix of converted warehouse apartments and newer high-rises that attract working professionals and students alike. The area comes alive after work with local bar and dining options.

Commuters love the proximity to public transportation, with easy access to the CTA Blue Line and Green Line as well as Metra trains at Ogilvie Station. The neighborhood also has one of the lowest rates of child poverty in America.

K2 residents gush over the building’s location and staff, saying they feel welcomed and loved by their neighbors and fellow community members. The building has a unique design with light palettes, white and gray finishes, stainless steel appliances and floor-to-ceiling windows. It is also known for being incredibly dog-friendly with a fenced dog park just across the street!

Weekly Resident Events

Hosting regular resident events is a simple and inexpensive way to keep your apartment community engaged. However, not every event will appeal to all residents and it’s important to cater your events to your specific tenant demographics. For example, a boozy late-night party won’t work if your property is 80% families with young children and a college football tailgate might not be the best idea if you manage student apartments.

If you’re struggling to come up with engaging ideas, here are a few suggestions:

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Tenzin’s Family Dynamics and Responsibilities.

Who is Tenzin’s Father?

Tenzin is a quiet man with a strong sense of responsibility. He feels a duty to the people of Republic City and to his family.

He is a stern character who can become flustered when he sees foolishness or madness. He also has a tendency to overvalue his own accomplishments.

His mother

Tenzin’s mother, Colleen, lives in New York City with her two sons. She works from home as a licensed special education teacher. Her boys are active in karate and practice five or six days a week. They also take piano lessons.

The show also reveals that Pema is a Tibetan Buddhist. It’s likely that she will be instrumental in helping Tenzin fight against the Equalists. Pema was formerly a member of the Equalists, but left when she realized that Amon was becoming more radical.

The show also reveals that Tenzin has four children. His daughters, Kya and Jinora, are airbenders. He also has a son, Ikki. The implication is that Tenzin’s children will be sent to each Air temple to help repopulate them. Ikki would go to the Eastern Air Temple, Jinora to the Western, Meelo to the Northern and Rohan (if he is an airbender) to the Southern Air temple. This will give them a chance to reconnect with the airbending community.

His father

Tenzin is a proud man who takes his role as airbender master and parental figure to Avatar Korra very seriously. He carries himself with grace and respect, despite the stress and responsibilities of his position.

His close relationship with Pema is also important to his character, as he has a clear sense of responsibility for their children, Kya and Ikki. He has a stern and serious demeanor, but can also be flustered by perceived foolishness or madness.

Tenzin has a longstanding friendship with Toph Beifong’s daughter, Lin, although their romantic relationship eventually deteriorated due to Lin’s refusal to have children. Nevertheless, Tenzin and Lin continue to share a mutual respect for each other. He was initially hesitant to acknowledge Jinora’s mastery of airbending, but eventually relented after she helped the new Air Nation defeat Zaheer. He subsequently anointed her as a true master airbender. He is a dedicated world leader who takes his duty to Republic City and the Air Nomad culture very seriously.

His siblings

Tenzin has a close relationship with all of his children, who are willing to help him whenever possible. He especially cares about Jinora and is proud of her for mastering the art of airbending so early in life.

He also has a longstanding friendship with Lin Beifong, daughter of Toph Beifong, and at one point, the two were a couple. Eventually, Pema, an Air Acolyte, entered the picture and won Lin’s heart, causing their romantic relationship to end.

Despite his pacifist tendencies, Tenzin has shown the ability to be ruthless when necessary in the name of protecting his loved ones. He did this when he used brute force to break through the Northern defenses surrounding the Southern spirit portal.

During the Fog of Lost Souls, he was confronted by the image of his father and nearly dissolved into tears. However, he was able to overcome this insecurity with the help of Aang’s illusion and successfully escape the Fog along with his family.

His children

Jinora is a badass bookworm, and I think we’ll see her become a full airbending master. Kya probably will too.

Tenzin and his mom Colleen live a pretty normal life with the kids. They’re both busy with their careers (Colleen’s a special education teacher) and the boys practice karate several times a week.

It’s interesting to note that Tenzin has four children, which he specifically arranged so they would repopulate each of the Air Temples. So it appears he was quite serious about his duties to Air Nomad culture and airbending.

It also seems that Tenzin has had some prior run-ins with Amon and his Equalist movement. This may have sparked his determination to keep the temples safe and free of Equalists in the future. He has even used his own money to help evict them from their homes. A brilliant move on his part, if you ask me. I’m sure the Equalists will take notice.

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Constant Consistency: Tenjin Scrollworks – Crafted to Inspire and Enhance Your Everyday Performance

Tenjin Scrollworks – The Beauty of Constant Consistency

Tenjin scrollworks is a lifestyle brand born from collaborative prowess and flaring aspirations. Our goal is to bring you selections of finely-crafted goods that aid your day-to-day performances.

According to Japanese copyright law, this work is in the public domain in Japan. See our Reuse of PD-Art photographs for details.

Crafted in Japan

Tenjin Style and Scrollworks is a Japanese-inspired lifestyle brand born from collaborative prowess and flaring aspirations. Our goal is to bring you selections that aid your day-to-day performances. The theme for this collaboration is Aikawarazu (): the beauty of constancy. Available in deskmat artistic line and tumbler merchandise.

1982: Fender Japan begins production with FujiGen Gakki having the manufacturing contract. These first “Made in Japan” (MIJ) models are sold alongside Fender USA stock until the new factory starts producing. After that, all Fender Japan products carry the ”Crafted in Japan” (CIJ) logo. For more information, see our FAQ. If you have any questions or concerns about your order, please contact us through Tokopedia or Discord.

Made in the USA

tenjin style and scrollworks is a Japanese-inspired lifestyle brand born from collaborative prowess and flaring aspirations. Our goal is to bring you selections of finely crafted products to enhance your everyday performance.

o Sutra text depicts brutal scene of offenders hung from iron beams, their bones broken and flesh torn off, then eaten by birds and animals and finally ground into dust. The recurring atrocity emphasises the endless nature of hell.

This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries or areas where copyright has expired. It is also available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC license for free reuse with credit to the creator. This photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain. Unless otherwise noted, this work may not be copied, altered, or used in any way commercially.

Crafted to inspire

We pair collaborative prowess with flaring aspirations to bring you collections of premium art and lifestyle products. Our mission is to inspire you to perform your best, whether in work or play.

– The demons gnaw at offenders’ legs and arms; their flesh is torn from bones and ground into dust, a recurring atrocity emphasising the endless nature of hell. Sutra text describes this brutal scene as one of the six processes in the tortures of hell.

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Unveiling the Exciting World of 에볼루션파워볼 중계

A Comprehensive Guide on 에볼루션파워볼 중계

The rapid advancement in technology has brought about sweeping changes in many sectors, and the gaming industry is no exception. Ever heard of ? Let’s dive in and discover more about this hot topic.

What is 에볼루션파워볼 중계?

The term 에볼루션파워볼 중계 can be compared to a thrilling game of endless possibilities, seamlessly integrating technology and the element of chance. It is a broadcast system for Evolution Powerball, a popular lottery-style game attracting players worldwide with its enticing payouts and straightforward games.

Why the Popularity of 에볼루션파워볼 중계?

Are you wondering why the seems to be in every gamer’s lips? The reasons are simple. It’s thrilling, straightforward, boasts impressive payouts, and isn’t gated by geographical restrictions. What else could a gamer ask for?

How Does 에볼루션파워볼 중계 Work?

Do you sometimes find yourself asking how the 에볼루션파워볼 중계 operates? The game uses a simple mechanism, where players predict the outcomes of randomized draws. The draws occur twice per hour, giving gamers multiple chances to win big.

The Future of 에볼루션파워볼 중계

Despite the current feats, 에볼루션파워볼 중계 has a bright future ahead. As technology continues to evolve, gamers can expect more innovative and immersive experiences from this popular lottery game.

As we wrap up the topic of 에볼루션파워볼 중계, it’s crucial to stress that responsible gaming is indispensable. Always remember to play within your limits.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is 에볼루션파워볼 중계?
– 에볼루션파워볼 중계 is a broadcast system for Evolution Powerball, a popular lottery-style game.

2. Why is 에볼루션파워볼 중계 popular?
– 에볼루션파워볼 중계 is accessible, straightforward, thrilling, and offers impressive payouts.

3. How does 에볼루션파워볼 중계 work?
– Players predict the outcomes of draws, which occur twice per hour.

4. What is the future of 에볼루션파워볼 중계?
– As technology evolves, players can expect more innovative and immersive experiences.

5. Is 에볼루션파워볼 중계 responsible gaming?
– Yes. Despite its thrills, players are always advised to play within their limits.…

The Rise of a Revolutionary Software Technology

The Advent of Evolution API

For developers and tech enthusiasts, the term should ring a bell. But, what is it, and why is it growing in significance?

The Basics of 에볼루션 API

In technical parlance, an API (Application Programming Interface) is a set of rules and protocols for building applications. It describes how software components interact, enabling different software programs to communicate with each other.

So, what makes the stand out? Simply put, this revolutionary software technology paves the way for more streamlined and efficient programming under varying conditions.

The Rising Importance of 에볼루션 API

The world is continually evolving, and so is technology. Amid these changes, the provides a much-needed resource toward heralding a future where technology facilitates efficiency and effectiveness like never before. But what drives its rising importance?

Ease of Use

To start with, the convenience that the offers to developers is second to none. Its ideal design ensures that very minimal manipulation is needed while working on different systems.

Diverse Applications

Looking beyond programming, the practical applications of the are numerous. They play pivotal roles in enabling seamless interactions between software programs, thus enhancing the overall user experience.

In Conclusion

The world of technology is like a fast-paced game – it is either you get better or get left behind. The 에볼루션 API is a testimony to this constant evolution, a profitable stride toward a future of even more exciting tech advancements.


1. What is 에볼루션 API?
An API that stands out due to its revolutionary contributions to more streamlined and efficient programming.

2. Why is 에볼루션 API important?
It heralds a future where technology promotes efficiency and effectiveness like never before.

3. Is 에볼루션 API easy to use?
Yes, it offers maximum convenience to developers and requires minimal manipulation while working on different systems.

4. What are the possible applications of 에볼루션 API?
It plays a pivotal role in enabling seamless interactions between different software programs, thus enhancing the overall user experience.

5. What is the future of 에볼루션 API?
It’s extremely promising, given its continuous evolution and the rising demand for cutting-edge technological advancements.…

Immerse Yourself in the World of 스포츠중계

Dive into the World of 스포츠중계

Do you love immersing yourself in the world of sport? Doing so has never been easier than with 스포츠중계. This fantastic platform, which translates to sports relay, is the perfect solution for passionate sports enthusiasts, allowing them to stay in touch with every twist, turn and thrilling moment their favorite sport has to offer.

What is 스포츠중계?

In this digital era, 스포츠중계 is revolutionizing the way we consume and access sports. This innovative service live-streams various sports events, ensuring that fans don’t miss a thing, no matter where they are. Does it sound captivating? Well, that is just the tip of the iceberg.

Why Choose 스포츠중계?

In addition to uninterrupted broadcasts, offers an unbeatable depth of sports coverage. From baseball, football to car racing, 스포츠중계 covers it all. Without 스포츠중계, would you be able to enjoy sports anytime, anywhere?

Experience 스포츠중계 Everywhere

In the past, watching a sports match meant sticking to your home television. Those days are gone. With , sports lovers now have the ultimate freedom to enjoy their favorite events right at their fingertips, even on the move. How convenient!

Engage 스포츠중계 Today

So, what are you waiting for? Experience 스포츠중계 today and become part of this growing community of sports enthusiasts. Embrace a new way of sports entertainment with 스포츠중계.


In essence, 스포츠중계 offers much more than a typical sports relay service; it offers versatile sports entertainment accessible anywhere, anytime. This breakthrough paves the way for an exciting new sports-watching experience that ensures you never miss the action.


Q: What sports does 스포츠중계 cover?
A: 스포츠중계 covers a wide range of sports, including baseball, football, soccer, and motor racing.

Q: Can I watch 스포츠중계 on any device?
A: Yes, is accessible on different devices, including smartphones, tablets, and PCs.

Q: How fast is 스포츠중계 live-stream?
A: 스포츠중계 prides itself on streaming sports events in real-time.

Q: Is 스포츠중계 free?
A: While some events may be free, others may require a subscription.

Q: Where can I access 스포츠중계?
A: You can access 스포츠중계 by visiting the official website: 스포츠중계.…

The Life and Work of Tenzin Lobsang, the 5th Samdhong Rinpoche

Tenzin Lobsang

Known to Tibetans as the 5th Samdhong Rinpoche, tenzin lobsang served as prime minister (officially Kalon Tripa) of the Tibetan government-in-exile from 1991 to 2001. He drafted the new constitution of the Tibetan government-in-exile and worked on issues related to education, economic development and transparency.

After he was diagnosed with MDR TB, he continued to work and pursue a graduate degree while undergoing treatment.

His life and work

He was a scholar of Tibetan Buddhism and the first non-monk to become prime minister of the Tibetan Central Administration, the government-in-exile. He was also a noted public speaker and an author.

He grew up in Jol, eastern Tibet, and was recognised, according to tradition, as the reincarnation of the 4th Samdhong Rinpoche at age five. He subsequently took monastic vows and began his religious training at the Drepung monastery in Lhasa, where he completed the study of Madhyamika.

In 1988 he joined the anti-China movement which was growing in strength and popularity among Tibetans around the world. He travelled to India and became active in the organization of the First Tibetan Youth Congress along with Tenzin Geyche, Sonam Topgyal and Gyari Rinpoche. The congress went on to become one of the most important Tibetan organizations in exile and Lobsang served as a member of its first leadership executive committee. He also co-founded the Tibet Fund.

His political activities

In the 1990s, Tenzin Delek was an active participant in the growing anti-China movement in Tibet. He took on projects that improved health care, education and living conditions for Tibetans in the Nyagchu region, often making enemies with mining and logging companies that benefited from China’s deliberate dilution of the culture and population.

During his time in Drapchi prison, he became famous for his bold demonstrations against mistreatment and for requesting the retrial of other prisoners. He was able to get the attention of many outside the jail, and other prisoners began saving their food rations in order to help him.

Tenzin Delek is the first case in the post-Mao era in which a Tibetan has been convicted of both separatism and bombing. TIN has no evidence that links Tenzin Delek to the bombings, and his incarceration raises concerns that the Chinese government is trying to equate separatism with terrorism.

His personal life

Upon his return to the United States, Lobsang taught at several colleges and universities. He was also the co-director of the Emory Tibet Science Initiative and the Emory Collaborative for Contemplative Studies. He has developed Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT), a secular compassion meditation program that incorporates elements of traditional Tibetan Buddhist mind training.

He was born in Jol, eastern Tibet and recognised as the reincarnation of the 4th Samdhong Rinpoche at the age of five. He joined one of the great monasteries in central Tibet at Jol and started his religious studies under the residence teachers Gen Kunchok Gyaltsen and Kalsang.

He fled to India with lakhs of Tibetan refugees after the 1959 Tibet Ribellion and became the political leader of the exile community. He has been active in the movement to bring Tibet back into the international arena and he supports non violence, women rights, social justice and interfaith harmony around the world. He has authored many books and has spoken on peace, religion, and culture in various forums and venues.

His health

In March 1988, while studying at Tibet University in Lhasa, Lobsang participated in a pro-independence demonstration. A police officer died in the protest, either by falling or being thrown from a window, and Lobsang was charged with his murder.

International pressure on the Chinese government led to Lobsang’s death sentence being commuted to 20 years in prison, but his condition has deteriorated significantly since then. He now suffers from severe diabetes and a heart condition that may have caused a stroke.

A professor in Emory University’s Department of Religion and spiritual director of Atlanta’s Drepung Loseling Monastery, Negi makes meditating look easy, but it takes a great deal of patience and dedication to master the practice. He continues to risk his health and safety for the benefit of others, including Tibetan prisoners in China. He also collaborates with researchers from multiple disciplines to study compassion and its effects on the body and mind. He is an inspiration to many.

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에볼루션파워볼 중계: 스포츠 중계의 새로운 얼굴

왜 에볼루션파워볼 중계가 마법과 같습니까?

에볼루션 파워볼 중계는 인터넷의 신대륙입니다. 서양의 온라인 스포츠 팬들이 이미 발견한 것이지만, 조금만 깊이 파보면 이것이 동양에도 큰 가능성을 제공할 수 있다는 것을 알게 될 것입니다. 와 그 기능에 대해 알아보기 전에, 무엇이 이것을 독특하게 만드는지 이해해 보겠습니다.

에볼루션파워볼 중계의 매력적인 특성

먼저, 당신이 어디에 있든 를 받아 볼 수 있습니다. 모바일 기기에서 작업하는 사람은 작업 중 시간을 절약하면서도 리얼타임 경기를 체크할 수 있는 큰 이점이 있습니다.

두 번째로, 마치 경기장에서 보는 것처럼 느낄 수 있게 하는 HD 화질로 라이브 스트리밍을 즐길 수 있습니다. 이는 특히 원격에서 경기를 보는 이들에게 고마운 특징입니다.

사용자 환경의 맞춤화

는 개별적인 욕구와 탐색 습관에 맞춰 사용자 환경을 맞춤화할 수 있습니다. 예를 들어 야구를 좋아한다면, 특정 팀, 리그 또는 선수에 관한 경기를 찾거나 라이브 스트리밍을 할 수 있습니다. 이기적인 관점에서 보면, 이것은 당신이 좋아하는 스포츠만을 추적하고 원하는 방식으로 시간을 보내는 데 도움이 됩니다.


그렇기 때문에, 에볼루션파워볼 중계는 스포츠 팬들에게 새로운 기회를 제공합니다. 스포츠 중계의 새로운 얼굴인 이것은 모바일 사용자를 중심으로 사용자 환경을 맞춤화해 마법과 같은 경험을 제공합니다.

자주 묻는 질문들

1. 에볼루션파워볼 중계는 무엇인가요?
– 에볼루션파워볼 중계는 인터넷에서 제공하는 라이브 스포츠 중계 서비스입니다.

2. 어디에서든 이 서비스를 받아볼 수 있나요?
– 네, 당신이 어디에 있든 이 서비스를 받아볼 수 있습니다.

3. 사용자 환경을 어떻게 맞춤화할 수 있나요?
– 당신의 선호도와 습관에 따라 특정 팀, 리그 또는 선수에 관한 경기를 찾거나 라이브 스트리밍을 할 수 있습니다.

4. 이 서비스의 장점은 무엇인가요?
– 편의성과 다양성입니다. 어디에서든 스포츠 중계를 받아볼 수 있으며, 개별적인 욕구와 탐색 습관에 따라 사용자 환경을 맞춤화할 수 있습니다.

5. 이 서비스는 무료인가요, 아니면 비용이 부과되나요?
– 서비스 이용 요금은 웹사이트를 통해 확인하실 수 있습니다.…

Italian Running Tech: Mizuno and Lamborghini Collaboration Delivers Comfort and Style

Mizuno Wave Tenjin 4 Review

Combining running tech with head-turning Italian design, this co-branded shoe from Mizuno and Lamborghini is a sure fit for fans of both brands. They’re a great option for runners with moderate heel strike who need stability and comfort.

The Tenjin offers next level comfort whether you’re running on a track or the pavement. Its design provides a snug fit with plenty of wiggle room for wider feet.

Infinity Wave Technology

The Infinity Wave plate uses different height waves to support the foot, which reduces overpronation. This is especially beneficial for people with flat feet, which are prone to developing this condition. The shoes also have a fan-shaped X10 carbon rubber that provides excellent traction on any surface.

The specialized X10 carbon rubber is what really sets these shoes apart from the competition. It is extremely tough, which makes them more durable and helps prevent abrasions in high-wear areas of the shoe.

These running shoes are the result of a collaboration between Mizuno and Automobili Lamborghini. They combine cutting-edge running technology with classic Italian style. The shoes are available now at Mizuno concept stores and online. They’re sure to impress your friends when you run in them.

X10 Carbon Rubber

X10 carbon rubber is a long-wearing material that helps to increase the durability of the outsole. It also offers improved traction on various road surfaces.

Located in the middle of the shoe, the wave plate efficiently absorbs and disperses impact forces. The resulting dynamic cushioning gives you a smooth ride that is both responsive and stable.

Lateral is the side of a shoe that faces away from the arch. It’s the opposite of the medial side, which is where most stability devices are located.

Mizuno’s U4ic midsole material is a light, responsive and durable material used in most of their shoes. It is an excellent choice for those who run in neutral shoes or who overpronate. This material is molded to fit the foot and improves stability.

SmoothRide Technology

These shoes have a lot to offer for their price. They have great stability and comfort, as well as a strong and durable design. They are made with a specialized X10 carbon rubber that helps to prevent abrasions. The X10 carbon rubber is also responsible for the durability of these shoes.

SmoothRide is a workflow solution that utilizes core Topcon technologies such as the RD-M1 vehicle mounted road resurfacing scanner and Sitelink3D paving management software. This technology helps to reduce a contractor’s need for costly lane closures and provides a more efficient way to complete milling and paving projects.

The RD-M1 is easy to install and uses intuitive software to collect surface information safely from the cab of a vehicle. This allows the contractor to know exactly how much material to use and stay within project yield limits.

Arch Support

The arch supports in these shoes are extremely comfortable and provide a lot of support. They are very durable and feature a special X10 carbon rubber that helps prevent abrasions in high-wear areas of the shoe. The shoe also has great breathability.

The main function of an arch support is to distribute weight evenly, which alleviates pressure on certain parts of the foot. It can also help reduce pain and improve balance and stability.

Foot arch supports are often recommended by podiatrists to treat a wide variety of foot and ankle problems. They may be over-the-counter or custom-made for specific foot conditions. They can also help relieve pain caused by everyday activities and sports. They can even help prevent injuries such as knee, hip and back pain.


The Mizuno Wave Tenjin 4 is a special edition running shoe developed in collaboration with the famous car brand Lamborghini. It features the same top-of-the-line Infinity Wave plate that other Mizuno running shoes have and a unique style that incorporates several automobile motifs. It also provides unparalleled cushioning.

These shoes have a moderate heel-to-toe drop of 13mm and are perfect for runners who like to focus on speed, endurance training and racing. They are ideal for track, asphalt and light dirt running terrains.

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Treatment, Diagnosis, and Prevention of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Infection in Elk

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Treatment

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brain worm) is common in white-tailed deer and occasionally causes disease in moose, caribou, mule deer, bighorn sheep, goats, llamas, and domestic sheep. This parasite has contributed to moose population declines in areas of high deer densities.

Elk do not consistently excrete nematode larvae in feces, making field diagnosis of a brain-worm infection difficult. ELISA testing using excretory-secretory (ES) products of L3 and somatic antigens of adult worms provides diagnostic options.


Although natural infections are asymptomatic in white-tailed deer, P. tenuis migrates more extensively in the central nervous system of incidental definitive hosts, such as elk and domestic ungulates, causing severe, disabling neurologic disease that can cause death. Anthelmintic drugs do not cure the disease because the drugs cannot get to high enough levels in the nervous system.

The current method of diagnosing field-infected elk requires demonstration of larval Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in the feces at necropsy. A serologic diagnosis would be more useful but currently requires a reliable test to detect anti-P. tenuis antibodies. To develop such a test, we used ES products and somatic antigens from adult P. tenuis in ELISAs with sera from elk experimentally infected with 6, 20, or 30 infective L3 larvae of P. tenuis, judiciously chosen to mimic the conditions of natural infections. We found that the ES product Pt-API-1 is specifically recognized by antibody from infected elk. The presence of this inhibitor in ES products and sonicated adult worms suggests that this life stage secretes the enzyme for interaction with the host.


The normal definitive host of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is white-tailed deer, and infection normally causes a subclinical neurologic disease in these animals. However, other wild and ranched cervids, such as moose, wapiti (elk), caribou, reindeer, black-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, antelope, bighorn sheep, stag, grizzly bears, llamas, alpacas, and domestic goats, can become aberrant hosts and develop severe neurologic disease that leads to paralysis and death.

Once a nematode reaches the adult stage, it becomes infective and is shed in the slime trail by the host. Once ingested, infective larvae migrate through the spinal cord and into the brain where they cause cerebrospinal nematodiasis, or “brain worm disease.” Unfortunately, diagnostic methods for P. tenuis are limited to a Baermann method and recovery of dorsal-spined larvae in feces, which is challenging for elk because of the low number of larvae excreted, intermittent shedding of larvae, and difficulty distinguishing them from muscle worm (P. andersoni) larvae (9). There are also barriers that prevent anthelminthics, such as ivermectin, from reaching high drug levels within the nervous system (10). Nonetheless, recent research suggests that this treatment may be possible for P. tenuis in elk (12).


There are lots of barriers to substances getting into and staying in the nervous system. This evolved as a protective mechanism, but it makes it difficult to treat infections caused by nematodes like P. tenuis.

The only definitive diagnosis is demonstration of larval or adult worms at necropsy. This is challenging as only a few cross sections are required for identification. However, a recent study has shown that a peptide from the aspartyl protease inhibitor of the infective L3 stage of P. tenuis (Pt-API-1) shares 19% identity with a peptide from the aspartyl protein of A. suum and that the peptide is detectable in excretory-secretory (ES) products from P. tenuis-infected white-tailed deer.

The nematode enters the central nervous system (CNS) of white-tailed deer by ingestion of the intermediate host, terrestrial gastropods such as snails and slugs, which ingest live L1 larvae in feces. After maturing to the infective L3 stage, these worms migrate through the intestinal tract and intestine to arachnids and then to the peripheral nervous system. Symptoms of neuroangiostrongylosis vary depending on the site within the CNS where migration occurs; common symptoms include weakness, loss of coordination, head tilt, circling and inability to stand.


Elk are atypical hosts for P. tenuis, which usually causes a neurologic disease that is fatal in cervids and other wild and domestic ungulates. This disease is characterized by focal, asymmetrical spinal cord lesions that result in ataxia, muscle weakness, head tilt, arching of the neck, circling, trembling and other twitching movements, paralysis, loss of the use of the front limbs, difficulty breathing, depression, weight loss, emaciation, seizures and death.

Currently, the only available antemortem test for P. tenuis infection relies on the detection of larvae in feces by microscopic examination. However, elk excrete few larvae and intermittently shed them in their feces; thus the sensitivity of the Baermann technique is low even when tested twice weekly.

Vaccination of red deer with Pt-API-1 produced robust serum antibodies against crude L3 antigens and inhibited neurologic disease in experimentally infected animals. The strong response to immunization and the presence of antibodies in atypical hosts prior to onset of neurologic disease suggest that a serologic test for P. tenuis could be useful in atypical host management programs.

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