Tench Modelled for Capture Probability

Tench (Tinca Tinca) Modelled for Capture Probability

Due to its particular meat flavour and interest among sport anglers, tench (Tinca tinca) is an attractive pond fish species with a growing aquaculture potential in Europe. It also has unique features that distinguish it from other members of the genus Cyprinidae.

The aim of the present study was to develop within/cross-species microsatellite markers for tench with high conversion and validation rates for non-model organisms. Seven tench populations were genotyped with the newly developed markers.


In models predicting capture probability, carp and tench were modelled separately. In the final models for both species, TL, lipid percentage, time in the sublittoral and activity space were included, whereas the number of switches among feeding sites was not (Tables 5 and 6). The 95% confidence intervals for all model averaged parameters overlapped one, showing that no behavioural trait consistently distinguished between vulnerable and invulnerable carp or tench.

Both fish shifted their core home range locations to the feeding site locations once corn was introduced, and strongly reacted to groundbait presence as expected [55,56]. However, catchability quickly declined for both species from the onset of the angling experiment, in agreement with previous reports of rapid hook avoidance by carp in lake recreational fisheries and tanks in Europe.


Tench inhabit rivers and lakes, especially those with a lot of vegetation, spending the winter buried in the mud. They feed on a variety of aquatic insects, snails, detritus, and plants by extending short sensory organs, called barbels, from their mouths to search the bottom for their prey.

In Europe, tench was first introduced outside its native range in 1877 (Baird 1879), and it was later introduced to the United States in 1936 (Nico and Fuller 2010) and to Canada in 1986 (Dumont et al. 2002). These invasive populations contain both Western and Eastern phylogroups, with high congruence between mtDNA and nuclear DNA loci.

Similarly, six putative non-native tench populations in Turkey carry only haplotypes from the Eastern phylogroup and were placed in the same SAMOVA group as eastern European sites (Figs 2A-D). This suggests that the tench was recently introduced into these river drainages from Europe or perhaps even further east, from the Ponto-Caspian refugium.


Tench (Tinca tinca) is the only member of its subfamily, Tincinae, within the carp family, Cyprinidae. It is a freshwater fish that thrives in eutrophic lakes. It eats aquatic plants, small snails and bivalves, and crustaceans. It can also live in brackish water.

Its unique morphological and genetic characteristics set it apart from other members of the genus Cyprinus. Among these are its unequivocal body colour (green to brown-green, although golden and albinotic phenotypes exist), specific reproductive biology, and monophyletic origin.

Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium studies show that tench are genetically distinct from other cyprinid species. The tench genome contains fewer polymorphic sites than the carp genome, but it is still a large and complex sequence. It has been used to develop genome-wide SNP arrays that can distinguish between Eastern and Western tench breeds. These SNPs were validated in a sample of two tench breeds that had been grown under cultured conditions for six generations. These SNPs did not have any negative effects on the main growth-related traits of tench.


Tench prefer lakes and ponds with muddy bottoms and dense vegetation, where they can hide from predators. They eat a variety of small insects and aquatic plants, including some of the same baits used by carp anglers. This behaviour increases water turbidity, and can affect native benthic invertebrates, snails and fish eggs.

Tench may also compete with native species for spawning sites and gill function. They can scavenge algae and other phytoplankton, and consume the seeds of some vascular plants.

The number of seed items retrieved from the feces of Roach, Rudd and Tench progressively increased with increasing water temperature (Table S1). These data suggest that tench consume and disperse plant seeds in a seasonal manner. This is consistent with observations that tench become more herbivorous during the summer and autumn, when they egested vegetative parts of vascular plants. Seeds of Juncus effusus, Betula pendula and grasses were the most common genus-specific species retrieved from tench feces.

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Love, Friendship, and Family: Exploring the Characters of Naruto Anime

Characters From the Naruto Anime

Naruto is an anime that shows the importance of love, friendship and family. The story is filled with relationships, betrayals and wars.

Tenji Sama, a prince of the Land of Ancestors is tasked with fighting against a rival kingdom over land ownership. During this time he meets Kaguya Otsutsuki.

1. Tenji

Tenji was the emperor of the Land of Ancestors. He was a benevolent ruler who wanted peaceful negotiations with his enemies rather than fighting them. He is also credited with the invention of Japan’s first family register and code of law.

As the emperor of the Land of Ancestors, Tenji had many duties that often conflicted with his love for Kaguya Otsutsuki. Ultimately, he betrayed her in order to preserve peace with rival lands. This was a difficult choice, but one that Tenji felt necessary for the greater good.

He has a number of impressive powers including the ability to travel through space, hypnotise others, and erase memories. He is voiced by Christopher Niosi in the English dub and Yuya Uchida in the Japanese version.

2. Kaguya

While she is often referred to as being an alien, Kaguya appears to be quite human-like. She possesses a dark and deep expression, and can often be seen staring into the night sky.

She can create rips in the fabric of space-time. This allows her to attack an enemy from uncertain angles, teleport to their location or even drag them into another dimension.

She also possesses the ability to weaponise her bones, allowing her to launch her ash-like bones like projectiles, disintegrating anything she impales. In addition, she can use her long hair as a shuriken, firing needle-like strands of chakra at opponents. She can also telepathically control the minds of individuals, as she did when she controlled Hamura and forced him to fight his brother Hagoromo.

3. Sasuke

Despite being the heaviest hitter in Team 7, Sasuke is also one of the most ruthless. Seeing his clan murdered by his Big Brother Itachi, Sasuke is a man driven to gain power for revenge.

He was a member of the Uchiha clan, and he is able to copy the Sharingan bloodline limit. Despite having a bad attitude and superiority complex, he is a highly skilled ninja.

A decent DS game for Naruto fans, but not so much for everyone else. The story is a little short, but there are plenty of modes and extras to keep players interested. The fighting is fast-paced, but the platforming sections could have been better designed. The controls are a bit unwieldy, too. The game does have some cool special attacks.

4. Kizashi

Kizashi is Sakura’s father, he was never seen in the anime but he was revealed in the sixth Naruto Shippuden movie Road to Ninja. He is an awsome looking shinobi and he’s always making funny gags for his daughter. He’s a very dedicated father to his daughter and he loves her a lot.

When he was alive he was a very accomplished shinobi and he was a well-respected member of Konohagakure. He was married to Mebuki Haruno and they had a daughter called Sakura.

During the Genjutsu World storyline, Sakura and Naruto meet their parents in a different universe. They reunite and then help the Tobi to escape from Menma. When they return to their reality, they inform Tsunade of what happened. This helps them re-establish their bond with each other.

5. Mebuki Haruno

With the advent of Boruto, fans got a chance to see what happened to their favorite characters after they grew up. Many paired off, settled down and started families. Some even became emperors!

Tenji is one such character. He served as the emperor of the Land of Ancestors. He was at war with the Land of That over land ownership. Kaguya was his lover. He betrayed her in order to avoid a war. She then ate the fruit from the God Tree and used Infinite Tsukuyomi to defeat his soldiers.

While Kizashi and Mebuki are a power couple, they’re also very much like a pair of supportive parents. They instilled a dedicated work ethic into their daughter, Sakura.

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